Here is a Starter guide to know more about the Solar Power System Components like Solar Panels, Batteries, Controllers etc and gives an overview about how Solar Energy Systems work. We will keep this section up-to-date and provide the latest systems details regularly.
The main components of a Solar Power Energy System are : The Solar Panels which feed directly into a Charge Controller. The Charge Controller charges the Batteries. The Batteries connect to the Power Inverter which converts the DC voltage to regular 120 Volt AC house power. Output from the Inverter goes to a standard AC Breaker Box and then to the outlets just like a conventional system.
The Solar Panels are the generators of the electricity. Using the Solar Panel Sizing tool will allow us to determine how many we will need. One variable is how many watts of power an individual Solar Panel generates. This usually varies from 100 to 200 watts per Solar Panel. Also, we will need to determine how much power is needed for the Solar Panels to provide. The number of Solar Panels we will need can be calculated by the total watts of power required and the watts per Solar Panel.
Because the sun’s intensity will change during the day, especially with clouds passing by and because as the batteries get closer to a full charge, they will want less voltage, charging must be controlled. It is the job of the Charge Controller to regulate the voltage applied to the batteries. This allows the batteries to receive maximum charge when they need it but not be overcharged. The two most popular and efficient types of charge controllers are PWM and MPPT. These are quality charge controllers and maximize performance
If the need is a stand-alone system that does not require the existing electrical grid, we will have to use storage batteries. The batteries will charge up and store power when there is sunshine and deliver it later. A DC to AC power inverter is required to convert the 12 Volt DC battery voltage to usable 120 Volt AC power which most appliances use. A small cabin might get away with all 12 Volt DC equipment, but a normal house will need 120 Volt AC power to run modern appliances, lighting, computers, etc.
To use the energy stored in the Battery Bank, we need a DC to AC Power Inverter. It changes the low voltage DC to 120 Volts AC for standard household appliances. There are 3 basic types. First is a Square Wave Inverter usually designed to plug into a car’s 12 Volt cigarette lighter outlet. These are cheap to buy but very poor quality. The next option is a Modified Sine Wave Inverter and is satisfactory for most applications. However, for a really clean power, a true Sine Wave Inverter is the best fit. A high quality Sine Wave Inverter often has a cleaner power footprint than any local utility company. That will be the best choice.